On Oct. 30, 1953, George C. Marshall, architect of the Marshall Plan, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
On Oct. 29, 1618, Sir Walter Raleigh, the English courtier, military adventurer and poet, was executed in London.
Why we need a divided Congress
On Oct. 27, 1811, Isaac Merritt Singer was born in Pittstown, N.Y.; though he never the reached heights of theatrical stardom he sought, his innovations changed the lives of women.
On Oct. 26, 1825, the 363-mile long Erie Canal opened for traffic, linking Albany, N.Y., on the Hudson River, to Buffalo, N.Y. on Lake Erie.
On Oct. 25, 1881, Pablo Picasso was born in Málaga, Spain. He became one of the most celebrated artists of the 20th century
On Oct. 24, 2007, China launched the Chang’e 1, phase one of its Lunar Exploration Program; its images enabled an exceptional 3-D map of the moon.
On Oct. 23, 1983, the United States Marine barracks in Beirut, Lebanon were hit by a suicide bomber, killing 220 Marines, 18 sailors, and three soldiers.
On Oct. 22, 1964, French author and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. He declined it, holding true to his existential philosophy.
On Oct. 20, 1859, education philosopher and reformer John Dewey was born in Vermont; his experiential approach changed American schools.
On Oct. 19, 1810, Cassius Clay was born in Kentucky; the son of a slaveholder became an ardent abolitionist.
On Oct. 18, 1919, Pierre Trudeau, who became the 15th Prime Minister of Canada in 1968, was born in Montreal, Quebec.